Descriptive and Measuring Approaches to the Study of Linguistic and Artistic-visual Giftedness

Artsishevskaya, Elena Vladimirovna
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of Moscow City;Teachers;Training;University, Moscow, Russia

Kabardov, Mukhamed Kanshobievich
Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Differential Psychology and Psychophysiology, the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia

The research was carried out in the context of 1) the school of B.M. Teplov’s typological concept, 2) the theoretical and experimental basis of the concept of a perspective resemblance of natural prerequisites and social factors at the teacher-method-student system (M.K. Kabardov).
The problems of cognitive, personal, communicative resources were considered in the biological or social and innate or environmental dichotomies.
The study includes two approaches to the giftedness’ study. One is idiographic (“descriptive”) and the other is nomotetic (“measuring”).
The first approach includes the concept of artistic giftedness of A.A. Melik-Pashayev, the second approach is based on the differential psychophysiology’s typological concept (B.M. Teplov, V.D. Nebylitsyn, E.A. Golubeva, M.K. Kabardov, etc.).
These theses present the results of a comprehensive psychological, neuro- and psychophysiological study of artistic and visual abilities. The breadth and variety of methods and means used to analyze empirical issue allow us to formulate a hypothesis about common mechanisms in special abilities and giftedness. Namely, an attempt is made to identify common mechanisms in the typology of artistic, visual and linguistic abilities.
It is connected with the hypothesis of the existence of individually stable neuro- and differential psychophysiological conditioned types both in the sphere of linguistic and artistic-visual giftedness.

Keywords: artistic and linguistic abilities, giftedness, communicative and cognitive factors, biological and social, artists, thinkers, graphic makers, painters
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